Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay about Health Economics - 741 Words

MEMORANDUM To: Professor Sherry Glied From: Shraddha Kothari Re: Using Grossman’s model to evaluate how NYC’s new sick leave law will affect emergency room use Date: February 10, 2015 This memorandum will use Grossman’s model of production of health to evaluate how New York City’s new sick leave law will affect emergency room use. Grossman’s model states that a person utility is based on health (H) and other non-health related goods (Z) that the person consumes. The production possibility frontier for Grossman model shows the tradeoff between home good production (Z) and health (H). Unlike usual production possibility frontiers, an individual needs an optimal level of H to maximize consumption of Z goods. New York City’s new sick†¦show more content†¦The individual’s health is a stock variable which changes over time. Hence, health decisions in one period not only impact that period but also impact subsequent periods. With paid sick leave, it is easier for an individual can take time off work to recuperate. This has multiple benefits. Firstly, it allows the individual to recuperate before health levels become extremely low. Extremely low levels of health will result in more ER visits and a longer recovery period. Secondly, if the individual has an infectious disease then paid sick leave allows the individual to recover and it prevents the infection from spreading to other people in the organization. Lastly, the improved health (due to recuperation) will increase employee productivity in subsequent periods at work. Hence paid sick leave will reduce ER visits over the course of the individual’s life. 3) A study shows that availability of after-hours care by primary physicians reduces emergency room visits. Based on this study we can infer that it is likely that some of these individuals are forced to visit emergency rooms due the unavailability of after-hours care by primary physicians and lack of paid sick leave to reach the primary care physician during regular work hours. Paid sick leave will reduce the emergency room visits as employees can now contact their primary care physicians during work hours. 4) With the new paid sick leave law, anShow MoreRelatedEconomics and Health Care1520 Words   |  7 Pagesturn leads to market failure. * Third-party payers is another reason because inefficiencies arise as a result of consumers not spending their own money. The majority of the expenses are paid by third parties, primarily health insurance companies and the government since health costs are usually too expensive for the middle to lower class who are usually more likely to become ill. 1B. In the real world, a perfectly competitive market rarely exists. One or more assumptions are violated in mostRead MoreEssay Health Economics2827 Words   |  12 Pagesforms of economic evaluation which are useful in health economics for comparing costs and allocating resources. Health economics is widely relevant to governments and the health sector in implementation of new policy, as it concerns the allocation of resources in the context of a limited budget, or scarcity. Economic evaluation is a potential tool for setting priorities in health, though it is only one of many potential criteria, including overall budget and public attitudes and wants. Economic evaluationRead MoreHealth Economics1683 Words   |  7 PagesHSA 500 Health Services Organization Janeen Whiteside-Harris Professor: Dr. Maryjane Granoff October 24, 2012 United States (U.S.) Health Care System (HCS) Requirements are to write a three to four page paper covering the following: 1. Identify and evaluate at least three forces that have affected the development of the health care system in the U.S. 2. Speculate whether or not these forces will continue to affect the health care system in the U.S. over the next decadeRead MoreHealth Economics1189 Words   |  5 PagesHISTORY OF HEALTH INSURNCE I stopped for a moment to imagine an average Americana’s world without a health insurance, what will become of such individual when the need for healthcare beckons? How will such individual offset the outrageous bill of healthcare? Health insurance is used in America to describe any program that helps pay for medical bills through the following: privately purchased and social insurance or a social welfare program usually powered by the government. Simply put, health insuranceRead MoreStatement Of Scholarship In Health Economics823 Words   |  4 Pagesto express my interest in the PhD scholarship in Health Economics at Monash University which was advertised in seek career website on 14th September 2017. I am a graduate from Curtin University who completed Master of Health Administration. While I was doing my postgraduate studies, I decided to do my dissertation in the field of Economics, focusing on Health Economics. The topic of my postgraduate dissertation was â€Å"Trends in income-related health inequalities in Australia†. The source of the dataRead MoreEconomics : The Financing Of Health Care1379 Words   |  6 Pages Thomas Gordon Healthcare Economic History ECONOMICS: THE FINANCING OF HEALTH CARE March 2, 2016 Lena Watson Health Care History The United States HealthCare System is pushing and getting ready to have a huge reformation. It is evolving on a major substantial evolution from its organization, management structure, and payment structure. The economic component of healthcare is equally important to better understanding the order to structure stature and is very successful. InRead MoreImplications Of Health Economics Concepts For Healthcare1712 Words   |  7 PagesImplications of Health Economics Concepts for Healthcare Chandra Chisholm Strayer University HAS 510 Dr. David Tataw May 3, 2015 Value of Healthcare Professionals Healthcare is getting gradually complex around the world. The need for technological development, economic support, demographics changes and the study of diseases are shifting at a fast speed. There had been numerous labors in describing collective capabilities and values within the healthcare organizations. It is necessaryRead MoreSocio Economic Class And Health Inequality1174 Words   |  5 PagesSocio-economic class has been linked to health inequality ever since the mid-19 century, when reported the living condition of the poor. Chadwick, E.1842 reported that the average life expectancy in Bethnal Green was 45 for professional but only 16 for labourers. Concern about inequality within the population in the early 20th century was offered as one major justification for the setting up of National Health Service (NHS) based on the recommendation of the Beverage report (1942). The health inequalityRead MoreUnderstanding The Value Of Health Economics811 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstan ding the value of health economics is very important during this rapidly changing environment. Health economics is the study of how transactions or connections between health and the resources needed are made and of the bottom line results (Getzen, 2013). Resources include money but also people, materials and time that could have been used in other ways. Our healthcare needs may be unlimited but the resources we have to satisfy them are not. We must make careful choices about which needsRead MoreHealth Economics And Policy Questions2412 Words   |  10 Pages Health Economics and Policy Coursework Question 2 SN: 13026885 a) w=  £62,500 U= √w 50% chance of medical problem Costs of  £4,900 We can derive this individual’s expected wealth if we multiply the probability of each outcome with the associated costs. E(w) = 0.5 *  £62,500 + 0.5 * ( £62,500 -  £4,900) E(w) = 0.5 *  £62,500 + 0.5 *  £57,600 E(w) =  £60,050 To find out what level of utility will this individual’s expected wealth yield, we simply have to put the value of the E(w) in the utility

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Narrative Essay About Summer Vacation - 784 Words

Summer Vacation Do you know the reason why we have summer vacation? I believe that summer vacation is not just about sleeping in and appreciating the time off, it includes spending time with your close friends and family, and that is exactly what I did this summer break. There were many fascinating things I did this summer and in this essay I will tell you a few of things I enjoyed doing. Spending time with close relatives and is exactly what I did to kickoff my summer even though massive amount of them lived out of the state Indiana going to Seattle, Mexico, Texas, and Virginia. Somehow we accomplished the task to see my whopping 275 family members only on my moms side, we ended up putting on a huge family reunion to†¦show more content†¦For that rest of the day we went to a restaurant called Pucketts and apparently it is right down the road from Justin Timberlake’s recording studio/private house, All of the kids including me went to his front and touched his door knob and I might of took a sneak peek inside his house. The last day we were there we visited a beautiful waterfall, even though it was a lovely site the water part was very deadly. The reason why it was deadly was there were big boulders everywhere you stepped, and there were water moccasins which are venomous snakes that lurked around in the water. When it was time to live the waterf all a water moccasin was about 20 feet in front of me and my friends, thankfully another guy ran into the water scaring the snake away making it safe for me and my buddies to get out. Honestly out of the whole entire summer this had to be my favorite vacation. This next vacation isn’t really a vacation it’s more of an event but it was fun, hilarious, and relaxing like a vacation. After Tennessee we went seven days later we went to Detroit, Michigan for this thing called a muck fest. A muck fest is 5k with muddy obstacles that you run into on your way to the finish line. The race only lasted 2 hours for my mom, dad, and other family members to finish. The best part was when I was able to do the last three obstacles and getShow MoreRelatedAmerican Literature Since The Civil War1948 Words   |  8 Pagesthemes of American culture, such as the American tradition of summer vacation, the commonly experienced mid-life crisis, anxiety about change, and fear of one’s own mortality. E.B. White’s â€Å"Once More to the Lake† is a memorable piece of American literature that continues to be relatable today because of its emphasis on growing old and facing one’s own mortality, as told through an American lens. The essay takes place during summer vacation in the early 20th century. The speaker has fond memories ofRead MoreThe Inevitability Of Aging Is An Unstoppable Force917 Words   |  4 Pagesmaturation, reflection and introspection also bring a sense of elevated knowledge to an individual. Therefore, memory infinitely creates concepts just as nature will grow unchecked if not tamed. Once More to the Lake written in 1941, E.B. White. His essay is easily readable, and his diction is simplistic. His descriptions and imagery include White s past and present memories. The narration is first person through the eyes and voice of the author. On the other hand, White s theme is more illusive.Read MoreAnalysis Of Life In The Woods1338 Words   |  6 PagesHenry David Thoreau’s Life In The Woods is a self-experiment that supplies a perfect opportunity for Thoreau to segregate from society and to live â€Å"several more lives.† This essay is a narrative of Thoreau’s journey as he finds his true self while attempting to live a life of purpose and intention in the woods. Despite mainly getting away from material necessities, Thoreau wanted to distant himself from human nature, to find the main reason for human existence. Correspondingly, Thoreau believes eachRead MoreWhen Daylight Became a Mere Spark1424 Words   |  6 PagesAnthony Brathwaite February 13, 2014 Narrative Essay When Daylight Became a Mere Spark In some weird way parents always think that first day after the summer vacation is very exciting for their kids. They buy clothes all summer long searching for that right outfit for the first day. You could hear the many conversations between the adults, who is wearing what and how cute their little one are. I came to realize quickly that this event caused more excitement for them than for the kids. I rememberRead MoreClive Staples Lewis Essay1325 Words   |  6 Pagesschool Jack started seriously learning about Christ and he started to read and pray (Id.). Otherwise, the boys had a horrible experience at this school and, lucky for them, it was shut down in 1910 because of the insane headmaster (Id.). Beginning of his career After Lewis left Belsen he enrolled at Cambell College, but left because he didn’t like the school and he was having serious respiratory difficulties (Lewis Foundation). In January 1911 to the summer of 1913 Lewis went back to EnglandRead MoreEssay on Theme of Self-discovery in The Awakening and A Dolls House1121 Words   |  5 Pagesmother. In The Awakening, Edna is described as a woman who is not a mother-woman (Chopin 10). During the summer at Grand Isle, the other mother-women watch their children carefully, clothe them, bathe them, and take care of them. Unlike the others, Edna walks the beach while her children are being protected by their nurse. Ednas sentiments toward her children are best described in Chopins narrative: She was fond of her children in an uneven impulsive way. She would sometimes gather them passionatelyRead MorePassivity vs. Passion in the Perks of Being a Wallflower1658 Words   |  7 PagesPassivity Vs. Passion The Perks of Being a Wallflower is by no means a typical narrative. Taking the form of an epistolary novel presented as a series of letters from a boy who calls himself Charlie, but notes that he will change names and minor details so for the sake of his anonymity, the short novel tackles themes such as pedophilia, drug use, depression, abortion and many more complex issues. Stuck in the middle of the mix is a young boy who certainly is not the archetypal protagonist, theRead MorePassivity Vs. Passion In The Perks Of Being A Wallflower Essay1651 Words   |  7 PagesPassivity Vs. Passion The Perks of Being a Wallflower is by no means a typical narrative. Taking the form of an epistolary novel presented as a series of letters from a boy who calls himself Charlie, but notes that he will change names and minor details so for the sake of his anonymity, the short novel tackles themes such as pedophilia, drug use, depression, abortion and many more complex issues. Stuck in the middle of the mix is a young boy who certainly is not the archetypal protagonist, theRead MorePersonal Narrative Essay Models 3252 Words   |  14 PagesPersonal Narrative Essay Models Some may not be of high literary quality, but they do show personal transformation and reflection. Others may contain inappropriate subject matter for some communities. However, they can be very useful in encouraging students to write. By choosing a suitable model, demonstrating annotation and applying the steps of the writing process, teachers can help young adults to compose effective personal narrative essays. Begin by allowing the students to review narrative modelsRead MoreBook Report - Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde4784 Words   |  20 Pagesgames with his cousins in summer holidays at  Colinton. * Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in The Land of Counterpane in  Ã¢â‚¬Å"A Childs Garden of Verses†Ã‚  (1885),  and dedicated the book to his nurse. * The canoe voyage with Simpson brought Stevenson to Grez in September 1876, and here he first met Fanny Van de Grift Osbourne. * Although Stevenson returned to Britain shortly after this first meeting, Fanny apparently remained in his thoughts, and he wrote an essay, On falling in love,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Causes of Suicide Among College Students Free Essays

Suicide means an individual intentionally to adopt various means to end his life. It has been the second leading cause of death among college students (Caruso, n. d. We will write a custom essay sample on Causes of Suicide Among College Students or any similar topic only for you Order Now ). The problem is getting serious in developing country such as Hong Kong and the ways to suicide had transformed to a mass suicide attempt on December 21, 2009 (Mak, 2011). These rising issues are telling us that suicide had becoming one of the most crucial matter that need to be resolve before it affect our future leader. So, we will review based on the past research for the alcohol and family relationship factors that contribute to suicide among college students. One of the factors that contribute to suicide among college student is alcohol consuming. Several past researches have been found to support this factor. An early study by Lamis, Ellis, Chumney and Dula (2009) claimed that many college students are experiencing heavy alcohol consumption and alcohol use are correlated with suicidal behaviour. This study is to check different levels of risk for alcohol-related problems and their relation to reasons for living among college students (Lamis et al. , 2009). 287 participants were recruited and divided into three alcohol groups, that are low-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk group (Lamis et al. , 2009). The hypothesis was made that participants in the high-risk group will report fewest reasons for living (Lamis et al. , 2009). RFL self-report measure was used to check how important a reason would be for living on participants. Besides that, AUDIT test also used to identify individuals whose experiencing alcohol-related problems (Lamis et al. , 2009). As the result, the high-risk group had fewer moral objections to dying by suicide compared to the low-risk group (Lamis et al. , 2009). From the experiment, we can see that obsessive alcohol use may lower student moral objections to suicide (Lamis et al. , 2009). Another experiment conducted by Lamis, Malone, Langhinrichsen-Rohling and Ellis (2009) stated that alcohol consuming will increase the risk for engaging in suicidal behaviours. This factor is strengthen when Powell and colleagues (2001), as cited in Lamis et al. 2009) found out that high alcohol drinking quantity will creates a greater likelihood of a serious suicide attempt. 318 participants were recruited and few measuring scale was used to predict the result for this experiment. The result tells that depression is predictor of alcohol use in young adults. Besides that, alcohol use are negatively correlated with body protection and the results suggests that individuals who are potentially involve in high-risk behaviours, such as suicide are usually from the one who have less tendency to protect themselves (Lamis et al. , 2010). Reference http://www.suicide.org/college-student-suicide.html How to cite Causes of Suicide Among College Students, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Climate Change Ecosystem Services

Question: Discuss about the Climate Change for Ecosystem Services. Answer: Introduction: Climate change refers as the long-term changes in the climate of globe. It takes place due to the changes in weather conditions of nations. In other words, it can be said that, climate change occurs due to an increase in the atmospheric temperature of a nation. Along with this, biotic processes, volcanic eruptions, plate tectonics, and variations in solar radiation are the major causes of climate change. Moreover, climate change is affecting the nation Alaska in a negative way. In addition to this, the effects of climate change in Alaska are diverse, considerable, and consistent. The effects contain receding glaciers, melting permafrost, disappearing sea ice, eroding coasts, and rising problems for native people, for instance salmon, caribou, polar bears, and sea otters (Haufler, 2010). In addition to this, it should also be noted down that, the climate change is also making changes in wetlands, lakes, plant composition, ponds, and wildfires that are influencing wildlife, and ecosystem of the nation. It is influencing the human health of Alaskas Native peoples. The health of people is influenced by loss of clean water as well as saltwater intrusion. Along with this, higher temperatures as well as drier conditions are also increasing the dangers of wildfire, dearth, and insect invasion in Alaska (Thomas, Savatgy and Klimovich, 2016). Moreover, climate change is also affecting oceans and coasts of the nation. For case, warming of oceans as well as melting of land-based ice increasing the level of ocean water and this is dangerous for the native of Alaska. Also, individuals and animals are facing new infectious diseases because of habitat changes. In this way, it can be said that, climate change is affecting the environment, people, and economy of the nation in a negative way. On the other hand, there are numerous reasons those are responsible for climate change in Alaska. For case, the major reason behind it is that the wildfires of Alaskan are mounting the discharge of carbon in the environment. The drier conditions of the nation are responsible for these large wildfires in the nation (Philander, 2008). In addition to this, the Greenhouse Effect is also other major cause of climate change in Alaska. It is because of the greenhouse effect plays a significant role to retain the heat within the atmosphere of a nation. The greenhouse gases such as: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), etc. are also the major cause of climate change in Alaska. Along with this, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major greenhouse gas that is considered as the key reason of climate change. Human activities like the flaming of fossil fuels are responsible to release large amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere. As a result, the level of CO2 is increasing on the regular basis and the increasing level of CO2 is responsible for climate change within nation (Zencey, 2012). In this way, it can be said that, the climate change is affecting human lives, wildlife species, animals, ecosystem and environment of Alaska in a negative way. References Haufler,J.B. (2010).Climate Change: Anticipated Effects on Ecosystem Services and Potential Actions by the Alaska Region, U. S. Forest Service. USA: DIANE Publishing. Philander, S.G. (2008).Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. USA: SAGE Publications. Thomas, C.S., Savatgy, L. andKlimovich, K. (2016).Alaska Politics and Public Policy: The Dynamics of Beliefs, Institutions, Personalities, and Power. USA: University of Alaska Press. Zencey, M. (2012).Unlikely Liberal: Sarah Palin's Curious Record as Alaska's Governor. USA: Potomac Books, Inc.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Voltaic Cell Lab Report Essay Example

Voltaic Cell Lab Report Paper Voltaic cell is a device in which a redo reaction spontaneously occurs and produces an electric current. In order for the transfer of electrons in a redo reaction to produce an electric current and be useful, the electrons are made to pass through an external electrically conducting wire instead of being directly transferred between the oxidation and reducing agents. A salt bridge must be used to avoid popularization of the electrodes by facilitating the circulation of ions from electrolyte. Each electrode is connected to the voltmeter by clips and wires. The voltmeter measures the voltage generated by the redo reaction. The voltage reading will be positive when the electrodes are connected properly for spontaneous reaction. A redo reaction occurs when the species with higher reduction potential is connected as the cathode. Research Question: What is the effect Of different concentration Of negative terminal electrolyte on the potential difference in voltaic cell? Hypothesis: The lower the concentration of negative terminal electrolyte, the higher the potential difference in voltaic cell. Variables: Manipulated variable Concentration of negative terminal electrolyte * Use zinc sulfate solution, Azans as the negative terminal electrolyte throughout the experiment * Use zinc sulfate solution, Azans of different concentration, 1. MM, 0. MM, 0. MM and 0. MM Measure egg, g, jug and 0. Egg of zinc sulfate powder then mix in distilled water respectively until all the salt are completely dissolves then pour the solution into volumetric flask and add water until it make up to scum. We will write a custom essay sample on Voltaic Cell Lab Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Voltaic Cell Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Voltaic Cell Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I Responding variable Potential difference Measure the potential difference with a voltmeter Take readings of potential preference when using different concentration of zinc sulfate solution, Azans Fixed variable I Type of electrode ;k use two electrodes of different type, copper and zinc * use electrodes of the same size, CM x electromotive terminal electrolyte ;k use copper (II) sulfate solution, Cuscus as the positive terminal electrolyte * use the same concentration Of I . CM copper (II) sulfate solution, Cuscus throughout the experimenter of salt bridge * use the same type of salt bridge, Nanny throughout the experiment. Apparatus: * mall beaker * looms beaker * ml beaker Voltmeter * Connecting wires mall measuring cylinder * Electronic balance Glass rod * mall volumetric flask ;k Meter rule * Scissors Materials: ;k Copper (II) sulfate powder * Zinc sulfate powder ;k Sodium nitrate powder * Cotton string ;k 0. Mm copper sheet * O_urn zinc sheet ;k Paper towel Diagram: Copper (II) sulfate solution, Cuscus CM x LLC copper sheet electrode CM x LLC zinc sheet electrode Cotton string soaked with sodium nitrate, Nanny Zinc sulfate solution, Azans Scm x LLC copper sheet electrode Scm x LLC zinc sheet electrode Procedure: Preparation of zinc sulfate solution I. Weight out 40. COg, 4. COg, 0. BOB and 0. 048 of zinc sulfate powder then dissolve the powder into distilled water in ml beaker respectively. 2. Pour the zinc sulfate solution into Simi volumetric flask separately and label it. 3. Add distilled water into each volumetric flask until it makes up to mall. 4. Mix the solution well in each volumetric flask. Preparation Of salt bridge 5. Weight out egg of sodium nitrate powder then dissolves the powder into distilled water in Some beaker.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Chemical Properties of Matter

Chemical Properties of Matter Chemical properties are any of the properties of matter that may only be observed and measured by performing a chemical change or chemical reaction. Chemical properties cannot be determined by touching or viewing a sample; the structure of the sample must be altered for the chemical properties to become apparent. Examples of Chemical Properties Here are some examples of chemical properties. Reactivity with other chemicalsToxicityCoordination numberFlammabilityEnthalpy of formationHeat of combustionOxidation statesChemical stabilityTypes of chemical bonds that will formMore examples Uses of Chemical Properties Scientists use chemical properties to predict whether a sample will participate in a chemical reaction. Chemical properties may be used to classify compounds and find applications for them. Understanding a materials chemical properties helps in its purification, separation from other chemicals or in identification in an unknown sample. Chemical Properties Versus Physical Properties While a chemical property is only revealed by the behavior of a substance in a chemical reaction, a physical property may be observed and measured without changing the composition of a sample. Physical properties include color, pressure, length, and concentration.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Architecture and the Human Body Thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Architecture and the Human Body - Thesis Example Architecture is not just about the construction of the building but the totality of the thought process involved in conceptualizing the architectural design. When it comes to the subject of construction, human body and nature can be an appropriate source of inspiration. Designing with an understanding of the human body allows the architect to bring about a structure with complete physical balance and tranquility.Unfortunately, the architects of the current age, seldom utilize the design of divine when practicing their profession. Every human creation can reflect harmony and balance once it is performed in compliance with the anatomy of nature. The entire universe rests on a certain geometrical pattern and if anything constructed with human intelligence does not balance with it, can bring forth chaos. The art of architecture Architecture is an immense artistic work which requires thinking unlike any form of art. It demands thinking of an individual at higher proportion and deals more with the utilization of space in a creative way. In this art, an architect’s responsibility not just concerned with the clients, but to the people using the building and the public as a whole. But the saddening fact is that an architect hardly has the freedom which an artist own in relation to his creation. An artist can flow with his thoughts, but an architect has to keep in mind the practicability and usability of his creation. The primary objective of any building is to provide a sound shelter and this when done with little creative thought can make wonders. Architecture is a task which creatively collaborates mass, volume, space, light, shadow, texture, materials and pragmatic elements like construction, cost, and technology. This very aspect gives distinction to architecture from engineering that which mainly works on the use of materials and forms in accordance with mathematical and scientifical principles. The architectural works often depict the cultural and political aspect of a nation. It portrays the artistic and creative skill of a particular culture and depicts their ideas and concepts in a nutshell. The great civilizations of the history have astounded many with their outstanding architectural achievements. The monuments like Egyptians pyramid.Taj Mahal and the Roman Colosseum are the great examples of architectural wonders which can find no match on earth. It is a very surprising fact that the architectural work created by Egyptians and Greek civilization which stood out in the history was an inspiration from the human body design. They were so impressed by the human body that they incorporated the human body pattern into their architectural work. The symmetrical harmony existing between various parts of the body is indeed a thing to ponder on and applied on to the constructional art. A building can be more humanized and made accessible to people by designing it with a divine equation.